Dredging is the form of excavation carried out underwater or partially underwater, in shallow waters or ocean waters. It keeps waterways and ports navigable, and assists coastal protection, land reclamation and coastal redevelopment, by gathering up bottom sediments and transporting it elsewhere. Dredging can be done to recover materials of commercial value; these may be high value minerals or sediments such as sand and gravel that are used by the construction industry.
Dredging is a four-part process: loosening the material, bringing the material to the surface (together extraction), transportation and disposal.
The extract can be disposed of locally or transported by barge or in a liquid suspension in kilometer long pipelines. Disposal can be to infill sites, or the material can be used constructively to replenish eroded sand that has been lost to coastal erosion, or constructively create sea-walls, building land or whole new landforms such as viable islands in coral atolls